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常春藤解析英语【17】Darkening Skies Brighten Our Lives 光害危机

2010-08-10 06:52:04 来源:常春藤英语
Darkening Skies Brighten Our Lives 光害危机

by Ilse van Wyk

In both modern and ancient thinking, light and brightness are viewed positively. _(1)_
The ideal situation for any astronomer is to be able to observe the sky when there is no interference from artificial light. In the modern world of streetlights and neon signs, this is nearly impossible. The overuse of lights in populated areas causes a phenomenon called skyglow.
_(2)_ For an astronomer, it is vital to see the reflected light from stars, planets, and other objects in deep space. These difficulties frustrate both amateur and professional astronomers. Even the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, has been affected. _(3)_

An amateur astronomer in the US became so frustrated with light pollution that she decided to campaign for one week of dark skies every year. Although she was only a high school student, she managed to set up a website to raise public awareness. _(4)_

The National Dark-Sky Week is supported by the International Dark-Sky Association (IDA). This association has aimed to cut down on light pollution for almost 20 years. _(5)_ Addressing the problem of light pollution is helpful not only to astronomers but also to millions worldwide. There is mounting evidence that light pollution may contribute to health problems as well.

On a starry night, when we look up to the North Star and all the others visible to the naked eye, we have to use our imaginations. There are millions of other things in space that we would be able to see if we just turned off the lights.

(A) Her efforts eventually yielded National Dark-Sky Week, which was first held in April 2003.

(B) However, too much light can be a hindrance to science.

(C) The IDA also advises governments, cities, and companies on how they can light outdoor areas with minimal skyglow.

(D) The site of the observatory had to be moved since light pollution limited the observations that could be made.

(E) Skyglow lowers the ability to see the contrast between light and dark.


1. 第一题空格应选 (B)

a. 空格前说无论古代或现代,都对光抱持正面的想法(In both modern and ancient thinking, light and brightness are viewed positively.)。

b. 选项 (B) 却说,太多光线会妨碍科学(However, too much light can...)。两句均有关键词 light,而 However 为承接前后语意的转折,并带出本文的主题『光害』,故为正选。

be a hindrance to N/V-ing 是……的障碍∕绊脚石
hindrance n. 障碍(物),妨碍
例: A lack of education can be a hindrance to your dreams.

2. 第二题空格应选 (E)

a. 空格前提及人口密布的地区过度使用光线造成所谓『天空辉光』的现象(The overuse of lights...causes a phenomenon called skyglow.)。

b. 选项 (E) 进一步阐述天空辉光会降低看见明暗对比的可能性(Skyglow lowers the ability to...),承接前面语意,且两句中的 skyglow(天空辉光)为关键词,故为正选。

the contrast between A and B  A 与 B 之间的对比
contrast n. 对比
例: The photographer likes to show the contrast between the rich and the poor.

3. 第三题空格应选 (D)

a. 空格前提到,就连在英国的格林威治天文台都受影响(Even the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, has been affected.),推测下一句应说明该机构受到的影响。

b. 选项 (D) 进一步说明天文台的观察活动受限于光害而必须迁移台址(The site of the observatory had to be moved...),其中 observatory(天文台)指的便是空格前提及的格林威治天文台,故为正选。

a.site n. 地点
b.limit vt. 限制
limit A to B  将 A 限制在 B
例: You cannot limit yourself to your own hometown. There's a whole world out there.
c.observation n. 观察,观测
make an observation  观察,观测

4. 第四题空格应选 (A)

a. 空格前说一位女中学生设法架设网站提高大众对光害的认知(Although she was only a high school student, she...)。

b. 选项 (A) 接着说,她的努力(Her efforts)最后使『暗天周』在 2003 年四月首次实行,其中的所有格 Her 即指空格前提到的女中学生,故为正选。

yield vt. 产生;得出(结果)
例: The researchers' analysis yielded the conclusion that cranberries are beneficial to everyone.

5. 第五题空格应选 (C)

a. 空格前提及国际暗天协会致力于减少光害逾二十年(This association has aimed to cut down on light pollution...)。

b. 选项 (C) 则进一步指出,该协会同时也提供意见,如何在产生最少量的天空辉光下,照亮户外的方法(The IDA also advises...on how they can light outdoor areas with minimal skyglow.),其中两句主词 This association 和 IDA 指的都是国际暗天协会,故为正选。

a.advise sb on sth 就某事给予某人建议,就某事提供某人意见
例: My accountant always advises me on how to invest my money.
b.minimal a. 最小∕少的
maximal a. 最大∕多的


1. observe vt. 观察
例: The doctor observed the child to see how he would react to the medicine.

2. frustrate vt. 使挫折,使丧气
be frustrated with...  因……感到挫折∕沮丧
例: All of us were frustrated with the outcome of the meeting.

3. campaign vi. 从事活动,发起运动
campaign for/against...  发起支持∕反对……的活动
例: Let's campaign for better lunches in the school cafeteria.

4. manage to V  设法做到……
例: John couldn't manage to save money even though he had a high income.

5. cut down on...  减少……
例: You should try to cut down on the amount of time you spend on the Internet.

6. address vt. 探讨(问题)
例: We will address the problems at the end-of-the-month meeting.

7. be visible/invisible to the naked eye  肉眼所能见∕肉眼所不能见
例: There are germs invisible to the naked eye everywhere.


1. darken vt. 使变暗

2. positively adv. 正面地
 negatively adv. 负面地

3. astronomer n. 天文学家

4. interference n. 干扰,妨碍

5. artificial a. 人造的

6. neon sign n. 霓虹灯广告招牌

7. populated a. 有人居住的
  densely/sparsely populated  人口稠密∕稀疏的

8. skyglow n. 天空辉光

9. reflected a. 反射的

10. amateur a. 业余的

11. professional a. 专业的

12. observatory n. 天文台;气象台

13. mounting a. 日益增加的


1. set up...  建立……

2. raise awareness  唤醒意识,提高认识

3. contribute to N/V-ing  造成∕导致……

4. turn off/on...  关闭∕打开……(电源、电器开关)




一名美国业余天文学家因光害问题感到很沮丧,因此决定发起一年一周不开灯保持暗黑天空的活动。虽然她当时只是一名中学生,仍设法架设网站唤起大众的认知。她的努力最后促使『暗天周』在 2003 年四月首次实行。



1. (B) 2. (E) 3. (D) 4. (A) 5. (C)

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