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常春藤解析英语【33】Not Just Another Russian 俄国文坛巨擘──托尔斯泰

2010-08-13 17:45:07 来源:常春藤英语
Not Just Another Russian 俄国文坛巨擘──托尔斯泰

by Christine Newton

In 1828, baby Leo was born into the rich and powerful Tolstoy family of Central Russia. He would grow up to write two of the greatest novels in the history of literature and inspire social reform that would make an impact on the world. Not just another Russian author, Leo Tolstoy was a teacher, a philosopher, and the grandfather of non-violent revolution.

Tolstoy was an unsettled young man. He was a poor student who left his university when he could find no meaning in his studies. He joined the army but could not endure the violence and soon left that as well. By this time, Tolstoy was being noticed as a writer but he still felt unfulfilled. It was during this time that Tolstoy wrote his most famous books, War and Peace and Anna Karenina. In them, Tolstoy offered a new kind of fiction to Russian readers. He described events and characters so detailed and convincing that they blurred the line between the imaginary and real life. In Tolstoy's version, it was not great leaders that moved history, but the common people. His work has been called, "not art, but a piece of life."

Tolstoy suffered a mid-life crisis after writing Anna Karenina. Giving up his fortune to live among the peasants, he decided he must find the meaning of life or else kill himself. What he found came from the core of his Christian faith—universal love and passive resistance to evil. Gandhi later adopted this message in his campaign to free India. Martin Luther King, Jr. did the same in his fight for racial equality in America. The effects of passive resistance can still be felt today. Tolstoy was a gifted writer, but it was his revolutionary ideas that changed the course of history and the world in which we live.

1. According to the article, which of the following is most true about Leo Tolstoy?
(A) He always valued his peasant upbringing.
(B) His teachers thought he was very smart.
(C) He was satisfied with his life after people began noticing his work.
(D) He struggled to find meaning throughout his life.

2. What was special about Tolstoy's style of writing?
(A) He was the first author to address the issue of war.
(B) He described important events that really happened.
(C) The characters in his books were very true to life.
(D) He wrote about the great leaders who changed history.

3. Tolstoy considered killing himself because he ______.
(A) had not yet found the meaning of life
(B) was traumatized by his time in the army
(C) lost his inspiration for writing
(D) lost faith in universal love

4. How are Ghandi and Tolstoy alike?
(A) Tolstoy adopted Ghandi's message and wrote about it in his books.
(B) Tolstoy and Ghandi studied together at the university.
(C) Ghandi helped Tolstoy find the meaning of life.
(D) Ghandi used Tolstoy's ideas in his struggle to free India.


1. reform n. 改革
2. revolution n. 革命
3. unsettled a. 不安定的
4. unfulfilled a. 未得到满足的
5. convincing a. 令人信服的
6. imaginary a. 虚构的
7. peasant n. 农夫
8. core n. 核心,精髓
9. passive a. 被动的
10. resistance n. 抵抗
11. campaign n.(为达成某目标所作的)运动∕活动
12. equality n. 平等
13. gifted a. 有天赋的
14. revolutionary a. 革命性的
15. upbringing n. 养育


1. be born into...  出生在……(家庭背景)
2. join the army  从军
3. give up...  放弃……
4. struggle to V  努力做……
5. be true to life  逼真的


1. inspire vt. 激发
inspire sb to V  激发某人做……
例: My grandfather's military service inspired me to join the Navy.

2. make an impact on...  对……产生影响
例: This new discovery will make a big impact on the field of physics.

3. endure vt. 忍受
例: I had to endure his complaining for two hours during our hike yesterday.

4. offer A to B  提供 A 给 B
例: Having a new restaurant in town will offer more options to the people living here.

5. detailed a. 详细的
in detail  详细地
例: The satellite takes such detailed pictures that you can see people's faces in them.
例: The woman described the thief in detail and he was soon caught.

6. blur the line between A and B  模糊 A 与 B 的界线
blur vt. 使模糊
例: Sandra moved and blurred the picture we were taking.

7. suffer vt. 遭受;经历 & vi. 罹患;受苦
suffer from...  罹患……(疾病);受……所苦
例: David thought he was very healthy until he suffered a minor heart attack.
例: People often suffer from colds at this time of year.

8. adopt vt. 采用,采取
例: Yesterday, the government adopted a new law making all guns illegal.

9. be satisfied with...  满足于……
= be content(ed) with...
例: I don't need to be more popular because I'm satisfied with the friends I have.

10. address vt. 探讨(问题)
例: If we don't address our problems, we'll never be like we used to be.

11. consider + V-ing  考虑……
例: You should consider getting a haircut at that new barbershop.

12. be traumatized by...  (精神上)受到……所创
traumatized a. 精神受创的
例: Bill was so traumatized by the accident that he couldn't get in a car for two months.

13. lose faith in...  对……失去信心
have faith in...  对……有信心
例: We should have faith in Rose's ability to solve the problem.


It was during this time that Tolstoy wrote his most famous books...
本句使用 it is/was 引导的强势句构,有下列两种情况:
a. It is/was + 介词词组∕副词子句∕时间副词(词组)+ that 子句
本句构中的 that 为名词子句连接词,而不等于关系代名词 who、whom 或 which。
例: It was until midnight that I finished the report.
b. It is/was +(代)名词 + 关系代名词 who/whom/which 引导的形容词子句
此处的 who、whom、which 均可用 that 取代。且翻译本句构时,通常先译形容词子句,再译被修饰的名词或代名词。
例: It was my best friend who/that stood by me when I felt sad.


1828 年,小托尔斯泰诞生于俄罗斯中部一个富裕显赫的家庭。他长大后将写下文学史上最伟大的两部小说,并启发影响全世界的社会改革。托尔斯泰不只是名俄罗斯作家,也是一位老师、一位哲学家,更是非暴力革命的始祖。



1. 根据本文,下列关于托尔斯泰的叙述何者最接近事实?
(A) 他一直很重视自己的农民出身。
(B) 他的老师认为他很聪明。
(C) 人们注意到他的作品后,他对生活感到很满意。
(D) 他穷极一生努力寻找生活的意义。
题解: 根据本文,托尔斯泰出身显赫、因认为求学没有意义而离开校园、作品为人所知时依旧感到不得志,因此努力找寻生活的意义,故选 (D)。

2. 托尔斯泰的写作风格有何特别之处?
(A) 他是第一位探讨战争题材的作家。
(B) 他描述真正发生过的事件。
(C) 他书中的角色都十分逼真。
(D) 他撰写关于改变历史的伟大领导者的故事。
题解: 根据第二段,托尔斯泰巨细靡遗描述事件与角色,深具说服力,模糊了虚构与现实之间的界线,故选 (C)。

3. 托尔斯泰曾想过自杀,因为 _____。
(A) 他还没找到生命的意义
(B) 他在军旅生活中受创
(C) 他失去写作的灵感
(D) 他失去广爱世人的信仰
题解: 根据第三段,托尔斯泰放弃财富和农民一起生活,决定除非找到生活的意义,否则宁可自我了断,故选 (A)。

4. 甘地与托尔斯泰有何相似之处?
(A) 托尔斯泰采用甘地的信念,将之写在书中。
(B) 托尔斯泰与甘地是大学同窗。
(C) 甘地帮助托尔斯泰找到生命的意义。
(D) 甘地运用托尔斯泰的想法努力解放印度。
题解: 根据第三段,甘地稍后在解放印度的运动中采用托尔斯泰的信念,发展出不流血、非暴力的被动抗争手法,故选 (D)。

标准答案: 1. (D) 2. (C) 3. (A) 4. (D)

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