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常春藤解析英语【58】A Reader's Struggle 阅读障碍知多少

2010-08-16 20:52:57 来源:常春藤英语
A Reader's Struggle 阅读障碍知多少

by Zoe Catsiff

Many individuals struggle with a life-long condition known as dyslexia. These individuals have difficulty reading, writing, and spelling accurately. They may reverse words or confuse letters that have similar shapes, such as q and b. However, dyslexia has nothing to do with one's level of intelligence, nor does it come from visual or hearing damage. Instead, it is the result of a neurological disorder that interferes with the brain's ability to process language, and it can affect people across the entire spectrum of intellectual ability.

The term "dyslexia" was coined by Rudolph Berlin, a doctor in Stuttgart, Germany, in 1887. He used the word to describe a young patient who had difficulty reading and writing despite showing an above-average level of intelligence. Another doctor, neurologist Samuel T. Orton, began studying dyslexia in 1925 and pioneered a basic treatment for dyslexia that is still in use today. Neurologists and psychologists have continued to study the condition in the years since. Currently, the most popular, well-researched theory is that dyslexia results from the brain's difficulty connecting spoken language with writing.

In the United States, researchers estimate that five to nine percent of school-aged children have dyslexia. Although there is no cure for dyslexia, dyslexic people can learn to read and write through therapy and education. Despite having to struggle harder to learn to read than other students, and often feeling stupid or frustrated, dyslexic people can overcome their condition and go on to lead successful lives. Today, there are many doctors, lawyers, teachers, and other professionals who have learned to live with dyslexia.


1. individual n. 个人 & a. 个人的
2. dyslexia n. 阅读障碍
3. accurately adv. 正确地
4. reverse vt. 使颠倒 & a. 颠倒的
5. intelligence n. 智力
6. neurological a. 神经学的
7. disorder n. 失调
8. process vt. 处理 & n. 过程
9. spectrum n. 范围
10. intellectual a. 智力的
11. above-average丗丗中上的
12. neurologist n. 神经学家
13. dyslexic a. 有阅读困难的
14. therapy n. 治疗,疗法
15. professional n. 专家 & a. 专业的


1. such as...  诸如∕像……
2. be in use  在使用中
3. connect A with/and B  连结 A 与 B
4. lead a/an + adj. + life  过着……的生活
= live a/an + adj. + life


..., nor does it come from visual or hearing damage.

本句使用 nor 引导的否定简应句,有关简应句的用法如下:
a. 肯定简应句中用 so 或 too,使用 so 时其后须采倒装句构。
例: Milly is going to the party, and so am I.
b. 否定简应句中则用 neither、nor 或 either。neither 为副词,故其前须置 and;而 nor 为连接词,其前不必置 and,且使用 neither 或 nor 之后必须接倒装句;而 either 则置于句尾使用,其前要有否定副词 not,再置逗点。
例: Our classroom is not big, nor does it get enough sunlight.


1. have difficulty + V-ing  (做)……有困难
= have trouble/problems/a hard time + V-ing
例: Stella usually has difficulty getting her car started in the morning.

2. confuse vt. 混淆,使困惑
be confused about...   对……感到困惑
例: Sandy is often confused about proper English usage.

3. have nothing/something/little to do with...
例: Winona's coughing because she has a cold. It has nothing to do with her smoking.

4. interfere with...  妨碍……
interfere in...  干预∕插手……
例: The company's financial problems are interfering with its plan for expansion.
例: In many cases, the police cannot interfere in family disputes.

5. coin vt. 创造(新字)
例: The game was invented in England, but Americans coined the name "baseball."

6. pioneer vt. 倡导;开辟 & n. 先驱
例: Marie Curie pioneered the use of X-ray machines.

7. result from...  起因于……
result in...  导致∕造成……
例: Her acne results from on-the-job stress.
例: The disruption of the Internet resulted in widespread confusion.

8. estimate + that 子句  估计……
例: Rescuers estimated that a dozen cars were involved in the accident.

9. overcome vt. 克服
例: How did you overcome your financial hardships?


许多人终其一生都在和阅读障碍的病症搏斗。这些人无法正确地阅读、书写和拼字。他们会将句子的单字前后颠倒,或将 q 和 b 这类形状相似的字母搞混。然而,阅读障碍和一个人的智力无关,也和视力、听力受损不相干,而是和神经失调妨碍脑部处理语言能力有关,而这会影响一个人整个脑部运作的能力。

dyslexia 一词是德国斯图加特的 Berlin 医师于 1887 年所创。他用这个字来形容一名有阅读和写作障碍的年轻患者,尽管该病患的智力属于中上。另一位神经病理学家 Orton 医师则于 1925 年开始研究该疾病,并开创一种至今仍在使用的基础疗程。从那之后,神经科和心理学专家就不断在研究该病症。目前最普遍且具有完整研究报告的理论是,阅读障碍乃起因于脑部的言语区和写作区连结出现障碍。


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